Hair is made of various layers for both humans and dogs: the Epidermis (outer protective layer), the Dermis (inner layer with hair follicles, glands, nerve endings etc) & the Hypodermis (layer connecting skin to the muscle and bones underneath).
That said, there are some big differences!
A dog’s epidermis is about a third of the thickness of human skin and regenerates every 20 days, compared to a human’s 28 days. You could assume that this means we should wash our furry friends more often, yet that's not the case.
Humans grow singular hairs which continuously grow, whereas a dog’s fur grows in bundles within each follicle, growing and shedding in cycles that differ by breed. These bundles consist of a primary outer coat which can be coarse and then secondary soft undercoat. It can be very easy to strip the protective oils that actually protect your dogs skin and coat if the appropriate care and attention isn't given.
Apocrine glands are sweat producing in humans, although have additional functions in dogs, providing a protective coating for the epidermis and secreting pheromones (that unique dog smell!).
Humans have Eccrine glands over most of our body for perspiration, although dogs only contain these glands in the nose and paws to keep them moist. This is why dogs overcome the lower amount of sweat glands by panting in hot weather.
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